|(This 2-part series by Wayne Roy - C.Q.C. and I.P. Consultant)|
Universal Principles : Regardless of whether you're disarming someone who is threatening you with a firearm or a knife, or you're applying a non-violent restraint to someone who's drunk or being difficult, chances are you're applying one (or a combination of) the three universal principles of limb control :
- twist - any action that applies a spiral twisting pressure to a joint
- lock - any action that forces a joint against its natural direction
- fold - any action that applies folding pressure or leverage.
I initially developed these principles as a Defensive Tactics Training Module because they can be used to explain the power dynamic of any restraint or disarm.
Following is a photo of the 'twist' principle, followed by a photo of the 'lock' principle, then the 'fold' principle. And although these principles are shown being applied to a wrist, they could just as easily be applied to a finger, an elbow, a shoulder, a knee, or an ankle.
Below is an example of applying folding pressure to a wrist (fold).
Now I'll use those principles to describe a few limb controls. The first is a 'twist-and-fold'. With my left hand I've twisted the wrist outwards from the shoulder, and with my right hand I've folded it over and pushed down. The combined power dynamic will force the opponent straight down to the ground.
This technique below is a 'lock' on the elbow-joint and a 'fold' on the wrist joint. It turns the arm into a straight lever (a handle) that can be used to force someone down to the ground, or move them to a different location.
This technique below is a 'lock' on the elbow-joint and a 'lock' on the wrist joint, which also turns the arm into a lever. All you need to do at this point is lift the hand up and push forward and down into the shoulder, and the opponent will be forced to bend over into a weakened state of balance. From there you can kick, knee, or change to another restraint.
So as you can see, those 3 principles not only allow you to understand the power dynamic of a restraint or disarm... they make it easier to explain the technique when you're training with (or teaching) a colleague.
Just remember 'twist, lock, fold'... universal principles you can apply to any joint... to a finger, an elbow, a shoulder, a knee, or an ankle.
My thanks to Mark James of Panther Protection Services for the top image :
And also to Stephen Needham Photography for shooting the techniques :